The United States federal government is highlighting advanced manufacturing as a priority area, particularly in engaging industry and academia in collaborative partnerships. Federally supported user facilities, such as the Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, and consortia, such as the Nanoelectronics Research Initiative, are proven resources for developing new technologies. NIST also provides measurements to characterize the advanced materials and device with the NRI. Using these as examples this discussion provides an update on U.S. policy developments focused on building a network of manufacturing institutes on industry-relevant challenges. Each institute would be chartered in a competitively selected topic and focus on nationally important, precompetitive technologies to create “innovation hubs” for transformational impact.
The Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) fabric, the foundation of integrated circuit technology and microprocessors, has been at the core of much of the socio-economic development of the last century, touching all human endeavors and transforming every possible facet of our lives. CMOS is facing a perfect storm, however; its underlying device, circuit, integration, and manufacturing paradigms are all threatened by fundamental physical limits or economical sustainability doubts – or so are we told. Where do we go from here? In this talk Prof. Csaba Andras Moritz will present his vision – an architectural perspective – for new opportunities and capabilities based on emerging nanoscale materials, circuits and architectures. He will be focusing on the following questions: (i) is there a future for charge based designs; (ii) what disruptive capabilities may emerge at the nanoscale, could we replace all aspects of CMOS with something entirely different; and (iii) is it time to move beyond arithmetic focus/microprocessors to a decision making/reasoning enabling mindset? To answer these questions, Moritz will show some highlights on recent ideas pursued in his group focusing on nanoscale 3D circuits, hybrid spin-charge multi-valued circuits, and unconventional computer architectures, perhaps shaping a vision for how nanoscale computing could evolve in the 21st century.
The promotion system of science and technology (S&T) policy in Japan and strategy for nanotechnology/materials (NT&M) are addressed at the beginning of the presentation. In this context, the main issues of the 4thS&T Basic Plan of Japan are introduced. The trends of budget related with S&T as well as NT&M are also denoted. New topics in the council for science and technology policy (CSTP) of Japan are introduced including new executive members, commitments by the prime minister, and growth strategy in Japan. Platforms on NT&M in Japan are subsequently shown in terms of Tsukuba Innovation Arena (TIA). The 4thS&T Basic Planpositions "Green Innovation" for environment and energy and “Life Innovation” for medical care/nursing care/health as two major pillars of growth. The “Green Innovation” as well as “Life Innovation” includes the research field of NT&Mas a powerful tool to realize the innovations. A lot of NT&M measures are introduced in the action plans which promote “Green Innovation” and “Life Innovation”. In addition, a technology potential map, which overviews NT&Mmeasures, and new topics related with NT&M are described.
Two-dimensional (2D) nanosheets, which possess atomic or molecular thickness and infinite planar lengths, have been emerging as important new materials due to their unique properties. In particular, the recent development of methods for manipulating graphene has provided new possibilities and applications for 2D material systems; many amazing functionalities such as high electron mobility and quantum Hall effects have been discovered. This breakthrough has opened up the possibility of isolating and exploring the fascinating properties of 2D nanosheets of other layered materials, which upon reduction to single/few atomic layers, will offer functional flexibility, new properties and novel applications. We are working on the creation of new oxide nanosheets and the exploration of their novel functionalities in electronic applications. Recently, we found that titania- or perovskite-based nanosheets exhibit superior high- performance (er = 100–320) even at a few-nm thicknesses, essential for next-generation electronics. Additionally, nanosheet-based high- capacitors exceeded textbook limits, opening a route to new capacitor devices. One more interesting concept using 2D oxide nanosheets is designing complex nanodevices and superstructured nanohybrids such as field-effect transistors, spinelectronic devices, and artificial ferroelectric materials. With these unique aspects, 2D nanosheets will become an important research target in the form of “oxide graphene”.
Nanophotonics has the potential for new capabilities in information processing, computing and communications technologies; medical diagnostics and disease treatment; enhanced solar cells and energy harvesting; lighting; sensing, and many other applications. Nanophotonics continues to be an area of new discoveries utilizing nanoscale structures and phenomena to couple, transduce, or compress light at the nanoscale. It has been significantly impacted by research and investments in such areas as high-index-contrast Si and III-V nanostructures; quantum dots and wires; nano-particles in glasses, semiconductors, and polymers; plasmonics; metamaterials; silicon photonics; polymers in Si and III-V nanostructures; and a recent push toward the integration of photonics with electronics.
Integrated silicon nanophotonics allows ultra-dense monolithic single-chip integration of optical and electrical functions. Challenges remain in performance, cost, accessibility, availability, and power consumption, some of which are addressed by the National Signature Initiative on Nanoelectronics for 2020 and Beyond ( http://www.nano.gov/signatureinitiatives ). Silicon photonics is where electronics was in the late 70’s – poised for 10-20 years of rapidly increasing complexity. The big win for silicon photonics is in integrating closely with electronics, and in scaling photonic complexity – not necessarily in the core device performance. A program called OpSIS opsisfoundry.org will help advance the field by bringing prototyping capability within reach of startups, academic and government research groups.
The next decade promises further advances with the further integration and reduction of photonics and electronics, devices with dramatically reduced energy of operation, imagers with enhanced spatial resolution, sensors with increased sensitivity and specificity, and new energy harvesting solutions.
The long-view of the National Nanotechnology Initiative is for twenty years, with the promise of to create basic understanding and a general purpose technology with mass and sustainable use by 2020 (“Nanotechnology Research Direction” Springer 2000; “Nanotechnology Research Directions for Societal Needs in 2020” Springer 2011, available on www.wtec.org/nano2/). NNI outcomes are presented in comparison to other regions and global results. Priorities of the U.S. National Nanotechnology Initiative have been grouped and are funded under several ‘Signature initiatives” since 2011: (a) Nanoelectronics for 2020 and Beyond; (b) Sustainable Nanomanufacturing; (c) Nanotechnology for Solar Energy; (d) Nanotechnology Knowledge Infrastructure, and (e) Nanosensors. A current focus is on the third generation of nanotechnology products including nanosystems, self-powered nanodevices, and nano-bio assemblies. There is an increased focus on nanoscale science and engineering integration with other knowledge and technology domains (“Converging knowledge, technology and Society: Beyond Nano-Bio-Info-Cognitive Technologies”, Springer 2013, available on www.wtec.org/NBIC2/). The labor and markets are estimated to double each three years, reaching a $3 trillion market encompassing 6 million jobs by 2020. It will be imperative over the next decade to focus on knowledge, material, global, and moral progress of nanotechnology development.
Biology is curved, soft and elastic; silicon wafers are not. Semiconductor technologies that can bridge this gap in form and mechanics will create new opportunities in devices that adopt biologically inspired designs or require intimate integration with the human body. This talk describes the development of ideas for electronics and semiconductor nanomaterials that offer the performance of state-of-the-art, wafer-based systems but with the mechanical properties of a rubber band. We explain the underlying materials science and mechanics of these approaches, and illustrate their use in bio-integrated, ‘tissue-like’ electronics with unique capabilities for mapping cardiac electrophysiology, in both endocardial and epicardial modes, and for performing electrocorticography. Demonstrations in live animal models illustrate the functionality offered by these technologies, and suggest several clinically relevant applications.
The European Union and its Member States will in the coming decades be confronted with growing societal challenges and the Europe2020 strategy has set five ambitious objectives on employment, innovation, education, social inclusion and climate/energy. In particular, the Innovation Union Flagship Initiative aims to improve research and innovation in Europe, to ensure that innovative ideas can be turned into products and services that create growth and jobs. Materials science and engineering are expected to play a pivotal role. Some 70% of all technical innovations hinge directly or indirectly on the properties of the materials. Materials have been identified as one of the five Key Enabling Technologies for the competitiveness and sustainability of European industrial products, fostering the shift to a low carbon, knowledge-based economy.
The European Commission proposal for the next framework programme Horizon 2020 foresee important financial support to materials research and innovation. Improved value-added materials represent a sort of “invisible revolution” in current products, but the application of converging technologies, progress in modelling (the “materials by design”) and manufacturing open the way to future goods and services that may well be yet unknown or not imagined. More and more, an integrated approach is needed. On the one hand upstream, where the availability of raw materials should be considered (in particular for the new environmentally friendly technologies, such as electric cars and photovoltaic) and from the other hand downstream, at the end of product life with reuse and recycling of components and materials from eco-designed products. The European Commission's strategy for funding materials research over the coming years will be discussed in this talk.
Silicon nanowire transistor (NW Tr.), which is an ultimate form of MOSFETs, has attracted much attention as promising candidates for ultra-low power LSI. Since NW channel is surrounded by the gate, off-current (Ioff) is strongly suppressed. However, on-current (Ion) of repored NW Tr. is low due to large parasitic resistance in source/drain (S/D) and degraded carrier mobility in NW channel. In this work, we demonstrate high-performance tri-gate SOI NW Tr. with NW diameter of 10nm and the gate length of 14nm by introducing stress memorization technique (SMT). Significant Ion improvement is achieved by SMT as a result of both mobility enhancement and parasitic resistance reduction. Small Vth variations of NW Tr. are revealed by systematic variability measurement of NW Tr. with various device parameters. We also propose dynamic power and performance control by Vth tuning in thin-NW and thin-BOX structures and study low-voltage operation of NW CMOS circuits. Tri-gate NW Tr. presented in this work is a key device in future ultra-low power LSI.
This work was partly supported by NEDO´s Development of Nanoelectronic Device Technology.
Photonics for Communication is one of the earliest adopters of nanotechnology. In recent years, alternatives to the still dominating III/V technologies have evolved. Silicon Photonics as the most prominent is expected to play a major role in future optical communications. Silicon Photonics is compared to other technologies in various segments of the optical communication market, reaching from intra-chip to intercontinental distances.
Nanomembranes are thin, flexible, and transferrable and can be shaped into many different 3D geometries. Based on nanomembranes we present flexible, stretchable and printable magnetoelectronic devices with high application potential. Stretchabilities of more than 30% and printable magnetic sensors with GMR ratios of more than 5% are demonstrated. We also transfer single crystalline GaAs nanomembrane devices incorporating epitaxial quantum dots onto piezoelectric substrates. In this way, the electronic structure of a single quantum dot can be tuned with unprecedented control. For instance, it is possible to tune biexciton and exciton recombination lines into perfect resonance or to reduce the fine structure splitting to zero for practically any quantum dot. Differentially strained nanomembranes can roll-up into tubular structures once they are released from their mother substrate. Among others, such tubes can serve as vertical optical ring resonators which can be employed as optofluidic components to sense single cells and submonolayer condensates. Rolled-up nanomembranes can be exploited to rigorously compact electronic circuitry and energy storage devices. Novel phenomena and unconventional on-chip technologies will be discussed.
Graphene, the 2-dimensional crystal of sp2-bonded carbon atoms, is currently one of the hot topics in solid state physics. The electronic structure of the charge carriers in graphene is described by the Weyl-Hamiltonian for massless particles. This results in interesting properties such as an unusual quantum Hall effect or Klein tunneling. Charge carriers in graphene, whose density and type (electrons or holes) can be tuned by an external gate, are characterized by a high mobility, which makes graphene interesting for electronic applications. Furthermore, graphene is mechanically very stable and thereby almost completely transparent which may be exploited in flexible and transparent electrodes. In order to bring graphene from the lab into the application, methods must be developed for a large scale production of graphene by epitaxial growth on a substrate. The presentation will start with a brief overview over the properties of graphene followed by a short review of production techniques. Then I will discuss the fabrication and the properties of epitaxial graphene on SiC. Finally, I will show some recent results on the fabrication of hetero-atom doped graphene on Ni surfaces.